外籍工人在以色列的权利

  • 2017.04.24
  • 以色列
  • 来源:驻以色列经商参处
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The?Foreign?Workers?Act?1991(the"Foreign?Workers?Law"hereinafter)regulates?the?rights?and?obligations?of?foreign?workers?in?Israel,including?the?foreign?workers’employment?conditions?and?the?procedures?of?obtaining?an?employment?permit?for?foreign?workers?from?the?Ministry?of?Economy.

《外籍工人法-1991》(以下简称《外籍工人法》)对在以色列工作的外籍工人的权利和义务进行了规定,包括雇佣条件和从经济部申领外籍工人雇佣许可的程序。

It?should?be?emphasized?that?foreign?workers?employed?by?an?Israeli?employer?are?entitled?to?all?the?rights?and?benefits?provided?to?local?Israeli?employees?under?the?Israeli?employment?legislation,including,inter?alia,severance?payment,advanced?notice?before?termination,annual?leave,sick?leave,holiday?allowance,recuperation?payment,travelling?allowances,social?insurance?allocation?etc.In?addition,foreign?workers?are?entitled?to?enjoy?the?terms?of?collective?agreements?or?extension?orders?if?such?exists?at?their?work?place.

受雇于以色列雇主的外籍工人在以色列雇佣法律下有权享有以色列当地雇员的权利和福利,包括遣散费、解除雇佣关系前提前通知、年假、病假、节日补助、休养补助、通勤补助、社会保险缴纳等等。除此以外,如果外籍工人的工作单位加入了集体协议或延伸命令,那么外籍工人也能享有集体协议或延伸命令条款下的福利。

In?addition,foreign?workers?are?entitled?to?special?protective?benefits?for?foreign?workers?such?as?the?right?to?receive?a?written?employment?agreement?in?a?language?understood?by?the?foreign?worker,private?medical?insurance?and?suitable?residential?accommodation.

除以上外,外籍工人也享有特殊保护性福利,比如有权得到一份用其能够理解的语言书写的雇佣合同、私人医疗保险和合适的居所。

Foreign?Worker?Employment?Permit:

外籍工人的雇佣许可:

Under?Israeli?law,an?employer?must?hold?a?valid?foreign?worker?employment?permit?issued?by?the?Migrant?Worker?Unit?in?the?Ministry?of?Economy(following?payment?of?applicable?fees?and?charges)and?a?valid?medical?certificate?of?the?foreign?worker?issued?by?a?medical?institution?in?the?foreign?worker?home?country?in?order?to?employ?foreign?workers.The?foreign?worker?must?obtain?a?work?visa(B1?visa)in?order?to?be?allowed?to?work?in?Israel.

在以色列法律下,如果要雇佣外籍工人,雇主必须持有由以色列经济部外来工人处签发的有效外籍工人雇佣许可以及由外籍工人国籍国医疗机构所签发的,该外籍工人的有效健康证明。此外籍工人必须得到工作签证(B1签证)方可在以色列被允许工作。

Employers?holding?a?foreign?worker?employment?permit?must?report?the?employment?of?foreign?workers?in?accordance?with?the?procedures?of?the?applicable?work?field.Under?the?internal?regulations?of?the?Ministry?of?Interior,a?foreign?worker?that?wishes?to?terminate?his?employment?or?replace?an?employer?does?not?need?to?receive?a?permission?from?his?current?employer,but?should?update?the?relevant?authorities?with?the?identity?of?his?new?employer.

持有外籍工人雇佣许可的雇主必须按其所在行业的程序汇报雇佣外籍工人的情况。根据以色列内政部的规定,想终止雇佣关系或转换雇主的外籍工人不需要得到其现任雇主的同意,但是必须向有关部门及时更新其新雇主的身份。

The?validity?of?the?work?permit?issued?by?the?Ministry?of?Interior?limits?the?period?of?employment?of?the?foreign?worker?by?the?employer.

以色列内政部签发的工作许可的有效期限制了雇主雇佣外籍工人的期间。

Foreign?worker?may?receive?employment?permit?solely?in?one?of?the?specific?fields?approved?for?employment?of?foreign?workers?for?which?a?permit?was?given?to?the?employer(e.g.domestic?helper,agriculture,construction,welding,preparing?ethnic?food?and?other?industrial?positions).Following?the?arrival?of?the?foreign?worker?in?Israel,he/she?shall?not?be?allowed?to?start?working?in?a?different?profession?than?the?one?originally?approved?in?the?employment?permit.For?example,a?foreign?worker?who?arrived?to?Israel?to?work?in?the?nursing?care?field?or?to?work?as?a?chef?for?ethnic?restaurant?shall?not?be?allowed?to?change?his?employment?field?and?commence?working?as?a?construction?or?industry?worker,and?vice?versa.

外籍工人仅可在一项批准外籍工人工作并给予外籍工人工作许可的特别领域得到工作许可。(比如:家政、农业、建筑业、焊接地域风味烹饪或其他行业)。在外籍工人抵达以色列后,该工人不能在其工作许可上被允许的职业以外的职业工作。比如,一位来以色列从事护理工作或风味烹饪工作的外籍工人不被允许转换工作,比如抵达以色列后开始在建筑行业工作,反之亦然。

Nevertheless,there?are?special?procedures?applicable?to?foreign?workers?that?are?employed?in?the?construction?industry?which?allow?the?foreign?workers?to?change?their?employers?at?the?beginning?of?every?quarter?provided?that?such?employers?are?registered?manpower?companies.

然而,对在建筑行业工作的外籍工人适用特别程序,在雇主为人力公司注册公司的前提下,法律允许外籍工人在每季度伊始转换雇主。

Health?Insurance:

健康保险

According?to?the?Foreign?Workers?Law?and?the?Foreign?Workers?Regulations(Prohibition?of?Unlawful?Employment?and?Assurance?of?Fair?Conditions)(worker's?health?service)5751-1991,employers?of?foreign?workers?must?arrange?at?their?own?expense,private?medical?insurance,for?the?foreign?workers?covering?their?whole?period?of?employment.The?employer?must?provide?the?foreign?workers?with?a?summary?of?their?health?insurance?policies?in?a?language?understood?by?the?foreign?workers.

根据以色列《外籍工人法》和《外籍工人规定(禁止非法雇佣和保证公平条件)(工人健康服务)5751-1991》的规定,外籍工人的雇主必须自付费用为外籍工人安排覆盖整个雇佣期间的私人医疗保险。雇主也必须提供给雇员由雇员可理解的语言书写的保险单概述。

The?employer?may?deduct?from?the?foreign?worker's?monthly?salary,an?amount?that?he?has?expended?or?has?actually?undertaken?to?expend?on?insurance?premiums?as?aforesaid,in?an?amount?that?shall?not?exceed?the?amount?prescribed?by?the?law(as?on?January1st?2013-122.39?NIS)

雇主可以从外籍工人的月工资中扣除雇主支出或已承诺支出的前述保险费。此项费用的支出不能超过法律规定的数额(根据2013年1月的数据为122.39谢克尔)。

Accommodation:

居所

Under?the?Foreign?Workers?Law?and?the?Foreign?Workers?Regulation(Prohibition?of?Unlawful?Employment?and?Assurance?of?Fair?Conditions)(Suitable?Residential?Accommodation),the?employer?should?provide?the?foreign?worker?with?a?suitable?residential?accommodation?throughout?the?whole?period?of?his?employment?with?him?and?until?a?date?that?shall?not?be?less?than?seven?days?after?the?end?of?such?employment.

在《外籍工人法》和《外籍工人规定(禁止非法雇佣和保证公平条件)(工人健康服务)》的规定,雇主须在外籍工人被雇用期间提供外籍工人合适的居所,提供住所的期间不少于直到雇佣期结束后的七天。

The?criteria?for?suitable?residential?accommodation?include,inter?alia:a?limitation?of?no?more?than?6?employees?in?a?room,floor?space?of?at?least?4?square?meters?per?employee,bed?linens,wardrobes?or?a?separate?compartment?with?a?locker,electric?heating?and?ventilation,at?least?one?kitchen?with?a?sink?with?hot?and?cold?water?for?each?8?workers,dishes?and?utensils,refrigerator,washing?machine?for?each?6?or?more?workers,toilets?and?showers?with?easy?and?quick?access,suitable?electric?lightings?and?fire?extinguishers.

合适的住所条件包括:每间房间不得容纳多于6人、每位雇员至少有4平方米的地面空间、床单,衣柜或带锁的单独储存空间、电子取暖和通风设备、至少每8位雇员配有一个带冷热水的水槽、盘子和餐具、冰箱、每6位工人配备洗衣机、方便到达的卫生间和淋浴、合适的电子照明设施和灭火器。

An?employer?may?deduct?from?the?foreign?worker's?monthly?salary?a?maximum?amount?that?he?has?expended?on?residential?accommodation?to?be?updated?from?time?to?time?according?to?the?residence?area?in?the?country.It?should?be?noted?that?the?law?is?silent?about?a?situation?where?the?employer?provides?the?foreign?worker?monetary?payment?in?lieu?of?accommodation.We?are?under?the?opinion?that?the?fact?that?the?law?is?silent?is?a?negative?arrangement?and?the?employer?cannot?offer?the?foreign?worker?a?monetary?compensation?in?lieu?of?residential?accommodation.

雇主可以从外籍工人的月工资中减去工人的住宿费用,该费用的标准根据以色列不同地区而定,并不定时更新。值得一提的是,法律对雇主提供外籍工人金钱以代替住宿的情况没有具体规定。我们认为在法律没有明示的情况下这是一种消极安排,雇主不能用金钱补偿替代住宿费用。

Employment?Contract?in?writing:

书面雇佣合同:

The?employer?should?enter?into?a?written?employment?contract?with?the?foreign?worker,in?a?language?understood?by?the?foreign?worker,and?provide?the?foreign?worker?with?a?copy?thereof.The?employment?contract?must?specify?all?the?following:the?identities?of?the?employer?and?of?the?foreign?worker,job?description,the?foreign?worker’s?salary,the?composition?thereof,the?manner?of?updating?the?same?including?its?constituents?parts?and?dates?of?payment,a?list?of?deductions?from?the?salary,payment?made?by?the?employer?and?the?employee?for?the?employee’s?social?benefits,the?date?of?commencement?of?the?employment?and?the?period?thereof,the?length?of?the?foreign?worker’s?normal?working?day?or?week?including?his?weekly?rest?day,conditions?concerning?paid?absences,including?leaves,festival?days?and?sickness?days?and?details?with?respect?to?the?health?insurance?and?accommodation?provided?by?the?employer.

雇主与外籍工人应当以雇员懂得的语言签订书面雇佣合同,并向此外籍雇员提供该合同的复印件一份。该雇佣和同应列明下列内容:雇主和外籍工人的身份、职位描述、该外籍工人的工资、补偿等,以及向外籍雇员更新工资的内容及支付日期的形式、公司扣缴金额的清单、由雇主和雇员为雇员支付社会福利的情况、雇佣的开始日期和期间、外籍工人正常工作日或工作周的工作时长、缺勤报酬,包括假期,节日和病假及休息日、带薪缺勤的条件,其中包括每周休息日假期、节日,病假以及与雇主提供保险和居所有关的细节问题。

Salary?Payment

工资支付

A?foreign?worker,like?any?other?worker?in?Israel,is?entitled?to?at?least?the?minimum?wage?in?Israel.In?addition?to?the?minimum?wage,which?is?being?updated?from?time?to?time,the?foreign?worker?is?entitled?to?additional?payments?such?as?compensation?for?overtime?work,travel?allowance?and?recreation?payment.

和其他在以色列的工人一样,外籍工人在以色列享有最低工资,最低工资的数额不定期更新。除最低工资以外,外籍工人也享有如加班补偿、旅游津贴和通勤补偿等额外报酬。

As?long?as?the?foreign?worker?consented?and?according?to?the?terms?of?the?employment?agreement?or?the?collective?agreement?that?is?applied?in?the?work?place,the?employer?may?substitute?portion?of?the?worker's?salary?with?the?value?of?food?and?drink?to?be?provided?to?the?foreign?worker?in?the?work?place(excluding?alcoholic?beverages).The?value?of?the?food?and?drink?shall?not?exceed?the?fair?market?value.

只要外国工人同意且根据工作地点采用的雇佣合同和集体协议的规定,此雇主可以用向外籍工人提供的食品和饮料代替工人的部分工资(酒类饮料除外)。食品和饮料的价值不能超过它们的公平市场价值。

An?employer?may?deduct?from?the?foreign?worker's?salary?various?payments?that?are?required?by?law(e.g.individual?income?tax?and?social?insurance),suitable?residential?accommodation?expenses,medical?insurance?etc,up?to?a?cap?defines?in?the?applicable?regulations.In?addition,the?employer?may?deduct?from?the?foreign?worker’s?salary?outstanding?debt?owed?to?the?employer,provided?the?employees?gave?his?written?consent?and?the?total?amount?of?deductibles?shall?not?exceed?25%of?the?foreign?worker’s?salary.

雇主可根据法律规定从外籍工人工资中扣除法律规定的其他的款项(例如:个人所得税或社会保险)、合适的住宿费用、医疗保险等,这笔费用的最大数额由法律规定。除此之外,在雇主可在外籍工人书面同意的情况下从外籍工人的工资中扣除未偿债务,但总扣除款项不能超过外籍工人工资的25%。

The?employer?may?not?deduct?from?the?foreign?worker’s?salary?any?amounts?paid?for?reimbursement?of?fees?paid?by?the?employer?in?order?to?receive?the?employment?permit?or"foreign?employment?levies"imposed?on?employers?of?foreign?worker?and?these?sums?must?be?paid?by?the?employer?to?the?authorities?over?and?above?the?salary?of?the?foreign?worker.

雇主不得从外籍工人工资中扣除雇主支付的,用于取得雇佣许可的支出或由雇主缴纳的“外籍雇佣税费”这些费用必须由雇主向有关部门在外籍雇员工资以外支付。

An?employer?that?employs?a?foreign?worker?in?its?business?must?provide?the?employee?with?a?monthly?written?breakdown?of?the?salary?and?deductions(salary?vouchers).

雇佣外籍工人的雇主必须向雇员提供每月工资明细和抵扣款项。(工资单)

Levy?on?the?employment?of?foreign?workers

雇佣外籍工人

The?employer?of?foreign?worker?is?obligated?to?pay?the?Israeli?tax?authorities?a?compulsory?annual?fee?which?is?based?on?the?foreign?worker’s?annual?salary.

外籍工人的雇主有义务向以色列税务部门支付一笔根据外籍工人年工资计算的年费。

It?should?be?noted?that?employers?of?foreign?worker?in?nursing,foreign?journalist,foreign?athlete?and?foreign?worker?who?earns?more?than?twice?the?average?salary?are?exempt?from?paying?the?fee?above.

从事看护工作的外籍工人、外国记者、外国运动员以及收入为外国工人平均收入两倍以上收入的外籍工人免于支付以上的费用。

Individual?Income?TAX

个人收入所得税

Individual?Income?Tax?payments?are?deducted?from?the?salary?of?the?foreign?employee?by?the?employer?in?accordance?with?the?employee's?personal?income?and?transferred?to?the?Tax?Authorities.

个人收入所得税费用由雇主根据外籍雇员的个人收入从他们的工资中扣除并转给税务部门。

Foreign?workers?are?entitled?to?certain?tax?deduction?at?the?level?of?2.25“credit?points”(a?female?foreign?worker?entitles?to?an?extra?0.5“credit?points”).

外籍雇员有权享有特定的2.25税点(女性外籍工人享有额外0.5税点的优惠)的减税。

National?Insurance

国家保险

Foreign?workers?are?insured?under?the?National?Insurance?Institute?covering?work?injury,benefits?for?mothers,and?compensation?for?salary?and?severance?payment?that?were?not?paid?due?to?liquidation/bankruptcy?of?the?employer.The?employers?must?purchase?private?health?insurance?for?their?foreign?workers?as?abovementioned.

外国工人由保险范围覆盖工商、母亲福利和及因雇主破产/清偿而未支付的工资和遣散费用的由国家保险机构进行保险。雇主必须为上述提到的其雇佣的外国工人购买保险。

National?Insurance?contributions?in?respect?of?the?salaries?of?the?foreign?workers?are?as?follows(true?to?January?2013):Reduced?Rate:workers'contribution-0.04%;Employers'contribution-0.49%;Full?Rate:workers'contribution-0.87%;Employers'Contribution-1.69%.

根据外籍雇员工资计算的国家保险的缴纳数额如下(根据2013年1月的数字):降低的比例:工人缴纳-0.04%,雇员缴纳0.49%;全比例:工人缴纳-0.87%;雇主缴纳-1.69%。

Starting?1.1.2010,foreign?workers?from?countries?which?signed?social?security?treaty?with?Israel?are?insured?by?the?social?insurance?as?if?they?were?Israeli?residents.

从2010年1月1日开始,来自与以色列签订社会福利条约国家的外籍工人将获得与以色列居民同等的社会保险待遇。

Employing"Foreign?Experts"

The?Israeli?law?distinguishes?regular?foreign?workers?from"foreign?expert".Under?the?Foreign?Workers?Regulations(Exemptions?for?employers?of?foreign?experts),2007"foreign?expert?employee"is?a?foreign?worker?that?the?supervisor?in?the?Ministry?of?Economy?decided?to?approve?its?employment?in?the?following?roles:

以色列法律区分普通的外籍工人和“外籍专家"。在《外籍工人法规(外籍专家豁免)2007》中,“外籍专家”是以色列经济部决定批准的,受雇于下列领域专业人员:

Lecturer?or?researcher?in?institution?of?higher?education;

在高等教育机构工作的讲师和研究人员

Doctor?or?nurse?in?a?hospital;

在医院中工作的医生或护士;

Employee?holding?a?senior?position?that?requires?a?great?amount?of"personal?trust"in?foreign?or?International?Corporation;

在外国或国际公司担任高级职位需要“人身信任”的高级雇员

Photographer?or?reporter;

摄影师或记者

Jeweler;

珠宝商

A?spouse,a?child?or?supported?family?member?of?a?diplomatic?staff?of?a?foreign?country;

外国外交人员的配偶、子女或其所负担的家庭成员

Artist?or?athlete;

艺术家或运动员

Senior?staff?of?a?foreign?airline?or?a?foreign?shipping?company;

外国航空公司或外国海运公司的高级员工

Under?the?regulations,employer?of?a?foreign?expert?worker?is?exempt?from?the?following?duties:

在法规下,外籍专家的雇主免除以下业务:

Drafting?written?employment?agreement?with?the?employee;

与雇员起草书面雇佣合同;

Providing?suitable?residential?accommodation?for?the?foreign?expert?worker;

为外籍专家提供合适的居所;

Providing?private?medical?insurance,provided?that?the?employee?has?medical?insurance?policy?similar?to?the?insurance?under?the?Foreign?Workers?Order(Prohibition?of?unlawful?employment?and?ensuring?fair?conditions)(medical?worker),2001.

在雇员有与《外籍工人命令(禁止非法雇用和保证公平条件)(医疗工人)2001》中医疗保险相似的保险的条件下提供私人医疗保险;

paying?the?annual?levy

支付年度税费。

Foreign?expert?worker?that?meets?the?definition?of"foreign?expert"in?accordance?with?the?Income?Tax?Regulations(deduction?for?foreign?residents?accommodation?expenses)is?not?entitled?to?2.25“credits?points”,but?is?entitles?to?the?deduction?of?accommodation?costs.

根据《所得税规定(外国居民居住花费减免)》符合"外国专家"定义的,不能得到2.25税点的优惠,但是可以得到住房成本的抵扣。

Under?the?Foreign?Workers?Act,employer?must?obtain?a?written?permission?from?the?Supervisor?on?Foreign?Workers,to?employ?the?foreign?worker?in?accordance?with?the?permitted?conditions.

在《外籍工人法》下,雇主必须从外籍工人的监护处得到书面许可,根据书面许可的条件雇佣外国工人。

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